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Digital Pathology

10 Digital pathology: a new diagnostic technology Histopathologists play key roles in diagnosing disease entities and determining biomarkers related to the prognosis and response to specific therapy of malignant tumours. Histopathology is still firmly based on cell and tissue morphology supplemented with in situ molecular information and these together can be studied using an optical microscope. Digital microscopy creates a digital repre- sentation of the whole microscopic slides at decent quality, which can be dynamical- ly viewed, navigated and magnified via a mouse and computer monitor, and shared though computer networks without spatial and temporal limitations. Digital slides can be integrated into the hos- pital information system (HIS) and accessed through intra- or internet for teaching, pri- mary diagnosis, teleconsultation and quality assurance. Discrete pixels of calibrated qualities allow automated image analysis and signal quan- tification for drawing unbiased conclusions in diagnostic and research applications. Therefore, utilisation of the full power of computer technology to access multiple functions and the internet grants digital microscopy great potential to upgrade the efficiency of pathology workflow and patho- logists. By resolving critical issues, including Fig. 2 Schematic representation of area scanning (A, B) and line scanning (C, D) techniques used by available slide scanners. A) Classical area scanners collect large series of images at x-y dimensions through a microscope objective with a CCD camera, either in bright-field or fluorescence mode. B) The area scanner combining an 80-element lenslet array with complementary metal oxide se- miconductor (CMOS) sensor can cover large section areas at once. C) Typical line scanners can collect image strips from the continu- ously moving slides through an objective using a linear array light sensor, which is, however, not sensitive enough for fluorescence signals. D) Combination of 64 or more of linear array sensors permits TDI (time delay and integration) scanning, where consecutive sensors cumulate the signals making TDI appropriate also for fluorescence scanning Digital microscopy will upgrade workflow and specialists’ efficiency

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